Editor's note: The following article has been excerpted from a Report to the Executive Committee of the New York State Bar Association on the Use and Efficacy of Penal Law § 40.15 and Criminal Procedure Law § 330.20. The full report can be accessed at www.nysba.org/mandatedrep0419.

The report was approved by the Executive Committee at the April 12, 2019 meeting.

Thousands of individuals with mental illnesses are incarcerated in New York's prisons and jails. At the same time, the so-called "insanity defense" is so rarely invoked that it is arguably moribund. In order to examine why a defense that could lead to treatment instead of incarceration is so rarely invoked, NYSBA's Committee on Mandated Representation, under Chair Robert Dean, and Former Chair Andrew Kosover, and the Mental Health Subcommittee, traced the origins of the insanity defense, its history in New York, the effects of past reforms, and the post-acquittal commitment scheme.

The Subcommittee concluded that both the narrowness of the defense and the indefinite confinement that can follow an insanity acquittal likely restrict its utility. Although the insanity defense has often been portrayed as allowing guilty people to escape punishment, the reality is that even individuals acting under severe, pervasive delusions may still be convicted. As Charles P. Ewing, SUNY distinguished professor at the University of Buffalo Law School, warns, "You have to be crazy to plead insanity . . . and I say that because the consequences are so grave."

M'Naghten's Legacy in New York

New York's "insanity defense" has its roots in ancient common law.1 As in nearly every state, New York's statutory provisions applicable to criminal defendants who lack criminal culpability due to a mental illness stem directly from the English common law M'Naghten's Case. In that case, a woodturner who suffered from delusions of political persecution was acquitted of the murder of a civil servant and committed to a mental institution.2 In 1843, following public outcry at the acquittal and inquiry from the House of Lords, the Court of Common Pleas announced the rule that criminal liability could be excused only if the accused "clearly proved that, at the time of committing the act, the accused was labouring under such a defect of reason, from disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing, or, if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong."3

When the rule was imported to New York, the courts placed on the prosecution the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was not insane.4 The difficulty of carrying this burden was eased by a presumption of sanity that required the defendant to introduce substantial evidence of his insanity.5 By 1964, the harshness of New York's strict adherence to M'Naghten led to legislative reform.6 The legislature enacted Penal Law § 30.05,7 which provided: "A person is not criminally responsible for his conduct if at the time of such conduct as a result of mental disease or defect he lacks substantial capacity to know or appreciate either: (a) The nature and consequences of such conduct; or (b) That such conduct was wrong." The revision ameliorated the strict M'Naghten rule in that a defendant's lack of capacity to know or appreciate was not required to be total, but substantial.8 It also changed "nature and quality" to "nature and consequences." The legislature declined, however, to accept in full the recommendation of the Temporary Commission on Revision of the Penal Law and Criminal Code, which followed the Model Penal Code in providing that the defense applies to one who, due to a mental disease or defect, lacked substantial capacity "to conform his conduct to the requirements of law."9

By 1970, the Court of Appeals had restricted the defense by approving of a jury instruction that explained that to be held criminally responsible, "the defendant must have realized that the act was against the law and against the commonly accepted standards of morality."10 Thus, regardless of how pervasive a delusion, so long as a defendant understood that conduct was illegal and generally considered immoral, the insanity defense would fail as a matter of law.11

In 1984, following the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan and the public furor at his would-be assassin John Hinckley's insanity acquittal,12 the federal government and multiple states, including New York, tightened insanity statutes.13 The New York legislature repealed Penal Law § 30.05 and replaced it with Penal Law § 40.15,14 thereby shifting the burden to the defendant, making insanity an affirmative defense to be proved by a preponderance of the evidence. The statements of agencies and stakeholders contained within the bill jacket for Penal Law § 40.15 overwhelmingly supported the change.15 Most echoed the arguments offered by the Governor's statement in support: that insanity acquittals had risen in the decade prior and that placement of the burden of disproving insanity on the prosecution favored the defendant too heavily, thus creating a risk that defendants would "get away with murder."

The statute has not been amended since 1984 and Kohl remains good law. Two cases, one from 1994 and one from 2018, illustrate the insanity defense's continued narrowness in practice.

In 1994, brandishing a rifle, Ralph Tortorici took a classroom full of University of Albany students hostage. "He claimed that he was the victim of an experiment in which a microchip was implanted in his brain, and [he] wanted to expose the people responsible for victimizing him."16 One of the student hostages, Jason McEnaney, charged Tortorici and managed to wrestle the rifle away from him, allowing other students to pin him to the ground. During the struggle, Tortorici shot and wounded McEnaney.17 Tortorici was indicted on 15 counts, including attempted murder, kidnapping, and first-degree assault.

Once the trial began, Tortorici declined to attend, instead remaining in his holding cell.18 The People did not present any psychiatric evidence, while the defense presented four psychiatric experts, all of whom agreed that Tortorici did not understand the nature and consequences of his conduct.19 The jury, deliberating for an hour, convicted Tortorici of multiple felonies, including kidnapping and assault, but acquitted him of attempted murder. The court sentenced Tortorici to an aggregate term of 15½ to 40 years' imprisonment.20    The Appellate Division and Court of Appeals affirmed the verdict.21 Despite receiving Office of Mental Health services while in custody, Tortorici hanged himself in his cell in 1999.22

A juror explained why they had rejected Tortorici's insanity defense: "if he had just grabbed a gun and run into a McDonald's, it would have been a different situation. We would have looked at it differently. The fact that [there] was so much planning weighed heavily on us."23 The juror's interpretation of the insanity defense is consonant with the Pattern Jury Instructions for Penal Law § 40.15, which describe a lack of substantial capacity to know the nature and consequences of an act or that it was wrong in terms of children who "sometimes recite things that they cannot understand."24 Although people with mental illnesses were once thought of as insensible wild animals or infants,25 we have long known that even where a mental illness impairs reasoning in some areas (i.e., so that a person believes that taking a college class hostage will stop the government from experimenting on him), it does not often destroy all rational thought.26

In 2013, Lakime Spratley, seemingly at random and without planning or provocation, shot a woman in a grocery store, killing her.27 The evidence at trial indicated that he suffered from schizoaffective disorder, heard voices, and suffered from delusions of persecution. In a police interview he offered as a partial explanation that he believed the victim had stolen his clothes and was wearing his shorts, and that she had made trigger gestures at him.28 A jury convicted him of murder in the second degree and criminal possession of a weapon in the second degree. The Appellate Division, Second Department, reversed the verdict, explaining that "the rational inferences which can be drawn from the evidence presented at trial do not support the conviction," finding as a matter of law that the defendant had established that he lacked substantial capacity to know or appreciate that his conduct was wrong.29 One justice dissented.

These cases highlight the narrowness of New York's ostensibly evolved M'Naghten rule. For the defense to succeed, the defendant must have been insensible to the point that the line between lack of mens rea and the insanity defense disappears. But mental illness is not all or nothing; one need not conform to the medieval notion of lunacy by howling at the moon to lack - or have diminished - criminal culpability.30

In response to an inquiry sent by the Committee on Mandated Representation's Mental Health Subcommittee to chief defenders, 18 of 19 respondents endorsed the belief that Penal Law § 40.15 is insufficient to ensure justice for criminal defendants who lack criminal culpability due to mental disease or defect. In addition, multiple respondents questioned the all-or-nothing nature of the defense, noting that culpability, ability to appreciate the nature of one's conduct, and the ability to tell right from wrong are more appropriately viewed as matters of degree. Unfortunately, while societal and medical understanding of mental illness has evolved, the insanity defense has stood still.

The Insanity Defense in Practice

The comments in support of the enactment of Penal Law § 40.15 in 1984 would suggest that the insanity defense was being routinely abused.31 In the eyes of the public and legislators, it presented an unacceptable opportunity for murderers to walk free by faking a mental illness. Attorneys and the public alike "believe that the defense is invoked frequently and principally in cases involving murder."32   Yet social science research suggests that the insanity defense may only be invoked in one percent of felony cases, and that, when invoked, it is rarely successful.33 While research varies widely, some studies conclude that the defense succeeds in only one out of four cases, while others have found a success rate as low as one in 1,000.34 New York State does not track how often the defense is invoked, but the Department of Criminal Justice Statistics reports that over the five-year period from 2013-2017, only 11 defendants, out of 19,041 felony and misdemeanor trials statewide, were found not responsible by reason of mental disease or defect after a trial. During the same five-year period, 241 defendants entered a plea of not responsible, compared to 1,375,096 convictions for felonies and misdemeanors.35  According to the Office of Mental Health, as of June 30, 2018, 260 insanity acquittees were in secure confinement and 452 were in the community subject to orders of conditions. Meanwhile, as of 2016, approximately 20 percent of sentence-serving inmates in New York State correctional facilities carried mental health diagnoses that required Office of Mental Health services.36 In other words, based on a reported total prison population of 51,000, over 10,000 inmates receive services from Office of Mental Health.37

The insanity defense's low usage rates paired with the high incidence of mental illness in prisons raises a question: why are more defendants not invoking a defense that would send them to treatment instead of prison? First, the overall low success rate may deter defendants from interposing the defense. Second, defendants pay a penalty for arguing insanity and losing.38 Defendants whose insanity defenses are unsuccessful - which, as noted above, represents the vast majority of those who raise it at trial - receive significantly longer sentences than those who are convicted without having argued insanity.39 Third, defendants may be unwilling to assert the defense because they decline to accept a mental illness diagnosis. Fourth, as discussed in the next section, New York's civil commitment system may itself deter defendants with viable insanity defenses from raising them. For example, defendants acquitted based on insanity may remain confined for longer than the maximum term of the prison sentence they would have served if convicted.40 Thus, Professor Ewing's warning on grave consequences.41

Get Out of Jail Free? Criminal Procedure Law § 330.20

Whether the insanity defense should be reformed cannot be considered absent an examination of what happens to an individual after an insanity acquittal. The retention, care, treatment, and release of persons found not responsible of crimes after successfully invoking the insanity defense is a complex process involving the balancing of individual liberties and the protection of society.42 In New York, the current procedures that follow a verdict or plea of not guilty by reason of mental disease or defect were enacted in 198043 following a study by the New York State Law Revision Committee and to comply with the constitutional mandates of In re Torsney.44

In In re Torsney,  the Court of Appeals held that, because insanity acquittees lack criminal culpability, "[b]eyond automatic commitment . . . for a reasonable period to determine [acquittees'] present sanity, justification for distinctions in treatment between persons involuntarily committed under the Mental Hygiene Law and persons committed under CPL § 330.20 draws impermissibly thin."45 Nevertheless, due to a judicially imposed presumption that the defendant acquitted by reason of mental disease or defect is perpetually dangerous, in practice the CPL § 330.20 commitment scheme has become "increasingly onerous, bearing little resemblance to [Mental Hygiene Law] article 9 (civil) commitments."46

Stages of the Proceeding

"Track status, as determined by the initial commitment order, governs the acquittee's level of supervision in future proceedings and may be overturned only on appeal from that order, not by means of a rehearing and review."47  Following an insanity verdict or plea, the trial judge must immediately order a psychiatric examination of the defendant, to be followed by an initial hearing to determine the acquittee's mental condition.48 This hearing, in which the district attorney continues to participate, determines the level of judicial and prosecutorial involvement in future decisions concerning the acquittee's confinement, transfer and release.49 Based on its findings at the initial hearing the court then assigns the acquittee to one of the three "tracks."50 Track-one acquittees are those found by the trial judge to suffer from a dangerous mental disorder that makes them "a physical danger to [themselves] or others."51 Track-two acquittees are mentally ill, but not dangerous,52 while track-three acquittees are neither dangerous nor mentally ill.53

The most onerous aspect of the statutory scheme is the "recommitment" process, which is used to return outpatient acquittees to inpatient status in the event of psychiatric decompensation. As interpreted by the Court of Appeals, an acquittee on conditional release can be committed to secure confinement under the Criminal Procedure Law without the enhanced procedural due process protections afforded to people subject to civil hospitalization under section 9 of the Mental Hygiene Law even if at the initial hearing the defendant was found not dangerous and placed in track two or three.54 In other words, a defendant who was not committed to begin with can nevertheless be "recommitted" under CPL § 330.20. Appellate courts in New York have been completely unpersuaded that the initial findings of a criminal court placing defendants in one of the three available "tracks" have any constitutional significance."55 All such persons have committed criminal acts, and this underlies the permissible distinction between them and all others."56 Federal constitutional challenges to the New York statutory scheme have to date failed, albeit narrowly.57

In 1995, in In re George L.,58 the Court of Appeals determined that section 330.20 does not constrain a court to determining dangerousness as of the time when the hearing is conducted.59 Instead, the Court held that the State was permitted to engage in a presumption that the causative mental illness continues beyond the date of the criminal conduct.60 Stated another way, George L. adopted a presumption that the mental illness that led to the criminal act continues after the plea or verdict of not responsible and that assessments of dangerousness should not be limited to a point in time, but rather should be contextual and prospective in nature.61 Further, the presumption of dangerousness continues, in fact, and is not extinguished by a subsequent finding that the defendant no longer suffers from a dangerous mental disorder.62

Length of Stay

In addition to the judicial interpretations of CPL § 330.20 discussed above, Office of Mental Health policy has led to an increase in length of stay for confined acquittees. Over time, OMH has become "increasingly risk averse."63 Lengths of stay have become longer for people committed under the CPL despite the fact that the length of hospitalization has little or no effect on re-arrest.64

Unlike in other states, the maximum term to which an acquittee could have been sentenced does not limit the time that an acquittee may be confined at a secure forensic facility or subject to an order of conditions. In other words, a defendant whose maximum sentence would have been five years can be confined and/or subject to an order of conditions for the rest of his life. As aptly noted by one commentator, if one asks the question what happens after a defendant successfully invokes the insanity defense, "often the answer is involuntary confinement in a state psychiatric hospital - with no end in sight."65

In sum, once a defendant has been acquitted based on insanity and thereby adjudged to lack criminal culpability, she faces indefinite detention that can exceed the maximum time for which she could have been imprisoned. She enters an increasingly risk averse milieu that has enforced an increasing length of confinement despite falling admissions.66

Conclusion

Penal Law § 40.15 and the post-acquittal commitment scheme under Criminal Procedure Law § 330.20 deserve close examination with an eye toward reform. At the very least, legislation should be passed limiting the time a person found not guilty by reason of mental disease or defect can be confined to the maximum term for which they could have been incarcerated had they been convicted.

Of course, reform of the insanity defense is not the only way to address the issue of mental illness in prisons and jails. For instance, mental health courts have shown promise in diverting defendants with mental health issues to treatment.67 But only 27 such problem-solving courts operate in New York, and they are inconsistent in their diagnostic techniques and in matching the intensity of the intervention to the intensity of the risk.68

Nor is New York's restrictive approach to post-acquittal confinement the only model for insanity acquittees. In Tennessee, for example, 45 percent of insanity acquittees are never civilly committed; instead they are treated on an outpatient basis, and the average length of confinement is two years.69 Its recidivism rates have not changed since it changed its approach to insanity acquittees.70 Its Whatever the avenue or avenues of reform, the issue of mental illness in the jail and prison population demands attention.


  • See People v. Kohl, 72 N.Y.2d 191, 203, 532 N.Y.S.2d 45 (1988) (Hancock, Jr., dissenting); Michael Perlin, The Jurisprudence of the Insanity Defense (1994).
  • 8 Eng. Rep 718 (1843).
  • People v. Schmidt, 216 N.Y. 324, 332–33 (1913).
  • Kohl, 72 N.Y.2d at 202–03 (“Our earliest statute on the subject declared that ‘[n]o act done by a person in a state of insanity can be punished as an offence’ (Rev Stat of 1828, part IV, ch 1, tit 7, § 2).” The dissenting opinion provides a further history of the prosecution’s burden in these matters.
  • People v. Silver, 33 N.Y.2d 475, 482 (1974), defined substantial evidence as “the degree of proof required to rebut ‘most, but not all’ presumptions recognized in this State (Richardson, Evidence [10th ed.], § 58, p. 37).”
  • Note, Legislative Changes in New York Criminal Insanity Statutes, 40 St. John’s L. Rev. 75, 80–81 (1965).
  • N.Y. Law 1965, ch. 593, § 1.
  • Note, Legislative Changes in New York Criminal Insanity Statutes, 40 St. John’s L. Rev. 75, 78–81 (1965).
  • Id. at 81. Under the Model Penal Code, a defendant is not guilty if a mental illness renders him unable to conform his conduct to the law. MPC § 4.01. The Model Penal Code has been adopted by a majority of states. See Henry Fradella, From Insanity to Beyond Diminished Capacity: Mental Illness and Criminal Excuse in the Post-Clark Era, 18 U. Fla. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 7 (2007).
  • People v. Adams, 26 N.Y.2d 129, 135–36 (1970).
  • The Pattern Jury Instructions describe lack of substantial capacity to know or appreciate that conduct is wrong as “either that the conduct was against the law or that it was against commonly held moral principles, or both.” CJI2d[NY] Defenses: Insanity. Lack of substantial capacity to know or appreciate the wrongfulness of an act need not be so restricted. Arguably, a defendant acting on beliefs caused by mental illness may lack substantial capacity to appreciate the wrongfulness of an act despite being able to articulate that it is both illegal and against commonly accepted moral principles.
  • According to an ABC news poll taken the day after the verdict, 83% of Americans believed “justice was not done.” Douglas O. Linder, The Trial of John W. Hinckley, Jr., http://www.famous-trials.com/johnhinckley/537-home.
  • Id. (The House and Senate began hearings regarding shifting the burden of the insanity defense within one month of the Hinckley verdict. Within three years, two-thirds of the states shifted the burden to the defense to prove insanity, eight states adopted the verdict of “guilty but mentally ill,” and Utah abolished the insanity defense). See also Joe Palazzolo, John Hinckley Case Led to Vast Narrowing of Insanity Defense, Wall St. J., July 27, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/john-hinckley-case-led-to-vast-narrowing-of-insanity-defense-1469663770. (Following the Hinckley verdict, Kansas, Idaho, and Nevada also abolished the insanity defense, although Nevada later reinstated it.)
  • Not Guilty By Reason of Mental Disease or Defect.
  • See, e.g., Memorandum from Linda J. Valenti, NYS Division of Probation General Counsel, to Gerald C. Crotty, Counsel to the Governor, et al. (June 25, 1984); Letter from Paul Litwak, N.Y.S. Office of Mental Health, to Gerald C. Crotty, Counsel to the Governor (June 21, 1984); Memorandum from Jay M. Cohen, N.Y.S. Division of Criminal Justice Services to Matthew T. Crosson (June 19, 1984) (included in N.Y. Laws 1984, ch. 668 legislative bill jacket).
  • People v. Tortorici, 92 N.Y.2d 757, 759, 686 N.Y.S.2d 346 (1999).
  • Jacques Steinberg, He Disarmed a Gunman But Insists He’s No Hero, N.Y. Times, Dec. 28, 1994, https://www.nytimes.com/1994/12/28/nyregion/he-disarmed-a-gunman-but-insists-he-s-no-hero.html. But see Paul Grondahl, 20 years after Ralph Tortorici took class hostage at UAlbany, Times Union, Dec. 17, 2014, https://www.timesunion.com/local/article/Recalling-three-hours-of-terror-in-Lecture-Center-5961566.php (according to this account, McEnaney grabbed and held onto the barrel of Tortorici’s gun, and another student, Jason Alexander, was the first to tackle Tortorici).
  • Tortorici, 92 N.Y.2d at 762.
  • A Crime of Insanity, The Defense’s Summation, Frontline, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/crime/ralph/dsummation.html (excepts from the defense summation including discussion of Tortorici’s medical history and medical expert testimony).
  • Tortorici, 249 A.D.2d 588, 589 (3d Dep’t 1998), aff’d, 92 N.Y.2d 757 (1999), cert. denied, 528 U.S. 834 (1999).
  • Id.
  • Press Release, N.Y.S. Dep’t of Corr. Servs. Inmate Tortorici hangs self in prison cell (Aug. 10, 1999), http://www.doccs.ny.gov/PressRel/1999/torthang.html.
  • A Case of Insanity, Interview: Norm LaMarche, Frontline, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/crime/interviews/lamarche.html (last visited July 6, 2018); see also James C. McKinley Jr. & Jan Ransom, Manhattan Nanny Is Convicted in Murders of Two Children, N.Y. Times, April 18, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/18/nyregion/nanny-trial-verdict.html (“The prosecutors . . . also focused on evidence suggesting that Ms. Ortega had planned the murders.”).
  • “Children can sometimes recite things that they cannot understand. In those circumstances, the children may be said to have surface knowledge of what they recited, but no true understanding. Thus, a lack of substantial capacity to know or appreciate either the nature and consequences of the prohibited conduct, or that such conduct was wrong, means a lack of substantial capacity to have some true understanding beyond surface knowledge” CJI2d[NY] Defenses: Insanity.
  • For a discussion of the origins of the idea of people with mental illness as wild animals or children, see Anthony M. Platt, The Origins and Development of the “Wild Beast” Concept of Mental Illness and Its Relation to Theories of Criminal Responsibility, Vol. 1, Issues in Criminology, No.1, Criminal Responsibility (Fall 1965) at 1.
  • See People v. Jackson, 60 A.D.3d 599 (1st Dep’t 2009) (“Although two psychiatric examiners opined that defendant was not competent because he insisted on pursuing a defense of posthypnotic suggestion derived from his delusions, the ultimate determination of whether a defendant is an incapacitated person is a judicial, not a medical, one Defendant expressed a rational understanding of the judicial proceedings, the charges against him, the choices available to him, and the consequences of his decision to pursue a hypnosis defense rather than an insanity defense.”) (citations omitted). For an examination of the decision making abilities of those diagnosed with mental illness as compared to those without, see Paul Appelbaum & Thomas Grisso, The MacArthur Treatment Competence Study, MacArthur Research Network on Mental Health and the Law (May 2004), http://www.macarthur.virginia.edu/treatment.html.
  • People v. Spratley, 159 A.D.3d 725 (2d Dep’t 2018).
  • Id.
  • Id. at 731.
  • Rivers v. Katz, 67 N.Y.2d 485, 494 (1986) (regarding mentally ill patients’ ability to make decisions regarding their own care, “neither the fact that appellants are mentally ill nor that they have been involuntarily committed, without more, constitutes a sufficient basis to conclude that they lack the mental capacity to comprehend the consequences of their decision to refuse medication that poses a significant risk to their physical well-being”).
  • E.g., Letter from Paul Litwak, N.Y.S. Office of Mental Health, to Gerald Crotty, Counsel to the Governor (June 21, 2018); Memorandum from Jay M. Cohen, N.Y.S. Division of Criminal Justice Services, to Matthew T. Crosson (June 19, 1984); Memorandum in Support, From Robert B. Tierney, City of New York Office of the Mayor (included in N.Y. Laws 1984, ch. 668 legislative bill jacket).
  • Bonita M. Veysey, Gender Role Incongruence and the Adjudication of Criminal Responsibility, 78 Alb. L. Rev. 1087, 1088 (2014-2015) (citing Eric Silver et al., Demythologizing Inaccurate Perceptions of the Insanity Defense, 18 Law & Hum. Behav. 63 (1994)).
  • Lisa A. Callahan et al., The Volume and Characteristics of Insanity Defense Pleas: An Eight-State Study, 19 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 331, 334–35 (1991); Jeffrey S. Janofsky, MD, et al., Defendants Pleading Insanity: An Analysis of Outcome, 19 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 203, 205–07 (1989).
  • Henry F. Fradella, From Insanity to Beyond Diminished Capacity: Mental Illness and Criminal Excuse in the Post-Clark Era, 18 U. Fla. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 7, 11–12 (2007) (citing a success rate of under 25 percent); Heather Leigh Stangle, Murderous Madonna: Femininity, Violence, and the Myth of Postpartum Mental Disorder in Cases of Maternal Infanticide and Filicide, 50 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 699, 728 (2008) (citing a success rate of 1 in 1,000 criminal trials); Stephen G. Valdes, Comment, Frequency and Success: An Empirical Study of Criminal Law Defenses, Federal Constitutional Evidentiary Claims, and Plea Negotiations, 153 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1709, 1723 (2005) (citing success rates ranging from 0.87 percent to 26 percent).
  • Division of Criminal Justice Services, emails dated April 9, 2018 (on file with authors).
  • N.Y.S. Corrections and Community Supervision, Under Custody Report: Profile of Under Custody Population as of January 1, 2016, at 25, http://www.doccs.ny.gov/Research/Reports/2016/UnderCustody_Report_2016.pdf.
  • See id.; Emily Masters, By the Numbers: New York’s Prison Population, Times Union, Sept. 21, 2017, https://www.timesunion.com/news/article/By-the-numbers-New-York-s-prison-population-12216340.php.
  • Fatma Marouf, Assumed Sane, 101 Cornell L. Rev. 25, 30 (2016).
  • Michael L. Perlin, Myths, Realities, and the Political World: The Anthropology of Insanity Defense Attitudes, 24 Bull. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 5, 12 (1996); Michael L. Perlin, Unpacking the Myths: The Symbolism Mythology of Insanity Defense Jurisprudence, 40 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 599, 650 (1990); Joseph Rodriguez et al., The Insanity Defense Under Siege: Legislative Assaults and Legal Rejoinders, 14 Rutgers L.J. 397, 40102 (1983).
  • Mac McClelland, When Not Guilty Is a Life Sentence, N.Y. Times Mag., Sept. 27, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/27/magazine/when-not-guilty-is-a-life-sentence.html; People v. D.D.G., 27 Misc. 3d 1224(A) (Sup. Ct., Queens Co., 2010). In determining whether to release a defendant from custody following an adjudication of not guilty by reason of mental disease or defect, “a court may consider the length of confinement and treatment [and] the lapse of time since the underlying criminal acts” (internal citations omitted). In this case, defendant was released after more than 20 years of confinement, but the length of confinement was not the only factor the court considered, and standing alone would have been insufficient to secure his release.
  • Russ Buettner, Mentally Ill, but Insanity Plea Is a Long Shot, N.Y. Times, April 3, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/04/nyregion/mental-illness-is-no-guarantee-insanity-defense-will-work-for-tarloff.html; see, e.g., Michael Perlin, The Borderline Which Separated You from Me: The Insanity Defense, the Authoritarian Spirit, the Fear of Faking, and the Culture of Punishment, 82 Iowa L. Rev. 1375 (1997); Mac McClelland, When ‘Not Guilty’ Is a Life Sentence, N.Y. Times Mag., Sept. 27, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/27/magazine/when-not-guilty-is-a-life-sentence.html.
  • Barbara E. McDermott et al, The Conditional Release of Insanity Acquittees: Three Decades of Decision-Making, 36 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 329 (2008).
  • In Defense of Insanity in New York State, 1980 Report of N.Y. Law Rev. Comm’n, Reprinted in 1961 McKinney’s Session Laws of N.Y.
  • 47 N.Y.2d 667 (1979).
  • Id. at 674–75.
  • Sheila E. Shea & Robert Goldman, Ending Disparities and Achieving Justice for Individuals with Mental Disabilities, 80 Alb. L. Rev. 1037, 1089 (2016/2017) (citing In re Torsney, 47 N.Y.2d 667 (1979)).
  • In re Norman D., 3 N.Y.3d 150, 152 (2004). As observed by the Court of Appeals in In re Norman D., “track one status is significantly more restrictive than track two status.” Id. at 155.
  • CPL § 330.20(2)–(6).
  • In re Brian HH, 39 A.D.3d 1007, 1009 (3d Dep’t 2007).
  • In re Norman D, 3 N.Y.3d at 154. The “track” nomenclature does not appear in CPL § 330.20 but is derived from the Law Revision Commission report that accompanied the proposed legislation, which states that “[t]he post-verdict scheme of proposed CPL § 330.20 provides for three alternative ‘tracks’ based upon the court’s determination of the defendant’s mental condition at the time of [the initial] hearing.” (1980 Report at 2265).
  • CPL § 330.20(1)(c), (6).
  • CPL § 330.20(1)(d), (6), (7).
  • CPL § 330.20(7); People v. Stone, 73 N.Y.2d 296 (1989).
  • People v. Stone, 73 N.Y.2d 296 (1989).
  • In re Zamichow, 176 A.D.2d 807 (2d Dep’t 1991).
  • Id., citing Jones v. United States, 463 U.S. 354, 364–65 (1982).
  • See Francis S. v. Stone, 221 F.3d 100, 112 (2d Cir. 2000).
  • In re George L., 85 N.Y.2d 295 (1995).
  • Id.
  • Id.
  • Id.
  • Francis S. v. Stone, 221 F. 3d 100, 112 (2000). The Second Circuit observed that a track two defendant’s equal protection argument that following his release he could not be recommitted to a secure hospital under the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Law had “considerable force,” but denied habeas relief because of the restricted scope of review imposed on federal courts. His claim was premised upon two prior explicit state court findings in his case that he did not suffer from a dangerous mental disorder.
  • Richard Miraglia & Donna Hall, The Effect of Length of Hospitalization on Re-arrest Among Insanity Plea Acquittees, 39 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 524, 526 (2011).
  • Id.
  • Mac McClelland, When ‘Not Guilty’ Is a Life Sentence, supra, N.Y. Times Mag., Sept. 27, 2017.
  • Id. “The question ‘becomes one of risk tolerance. America has become – to an extreme level that’s almost impossible to exaggerate – a risk-intolerant society.’ Fears of people with mental illness persist, even though, according to the best estimates, only 4 percent of violent acts in the United States are uniquely attributable to serious mental illness.” Id.; Richard Miraglia & Donna Hall, The Effect of Length of Hospitalization on Re-arrest Among Insanity Plea Acquittees, 39 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry & L. 526 (2011).
  • See generally Carol Fisler, Toward a New Understanding of Mental Health Courts, Judges J. 54:2, 8-13 (Spring 2015).
  • Problem Solving Courts: Mental Health Courts Overview, New York State Unified Court System (January 26, 2017), https://www.nycourts.gov/courts/problem_solving/mh/home.shtml; New York State Mental Health Courts: A Policy Study, Josephine W. Hahn, Center for Court Innovation, Dec. 2015, at 11.
  • Mac McClelland, When ‘Not Guilty’ Is a Life Sentence, supra, N.Y. Times Mag., Sept. 27, 2017.
  • Id.